Randomized Controlled Trials
Click here for a summary of the Randomized Controlled Trials
Several Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) studies have been conducted using the Promoting First Relationships program across a broad range of populations:
- Two RCT’s have been conducted with PFR in child welfare populations. The first is Fostering Families Project (FFP: N = 210). The second is Supporting Parents Program (SPP: N = 247).
- One RCT with siblings of children diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum in the Sib Study (SIBS).
- Two RCT studies in rural tribal communities: Beginning Relationships (completed) and Miwe Project (in field).
- One RCT with mothers (Spanish and English speaking) who have been treated for depression during pregnancy (the focus will be to serve infants birth to three months of age) is in progress.
Reference list for publications regarding Promoting First Relationships® :
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Fostering Families Project 2005-2010
Spieker, S., Oxford, M., Kelly, J., Nelson, E., & Fleming, C. (2012). Promoting First Relationships randomized trial of a relationship-based intervention for toddlers in child welfare. Child Maltreatment, 17 (4), 271-286. doi: 10.1177/1077559512458176.
Spieker, S., Oxford, M.L., & Fleming, C.B. (2014). Permanency outcomes for toddlers in child welfare two years after a randomized trial of a parenting intervention. Children and Youth Services Review. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.017. PMCID in process.
Oxford, M., Fleming, C., Nelson, E., Kelly, J., & Spieker, S. (2013). Randomized trial of Promoting First Relationships: Effects on maltreated toddlers’ separation distress and sleep regulation after reunification. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(12), 1988-1992. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.09.021. PMCID: PMC3864747
Nelson, E. M., & Spieker, S. J. (2013). Intervention effects on morning and stimulated cortisol responses among toddlers in foster care. Infant mental health journal, 34(3), 211-221.
Pasalich, D.S., Fleming, C.B., Oxford, M.L., Zheng, Y., & Spieker, S.J. (2016). Can parenting intervention prevent cascading effects from placement instability to insecure attachment to externalizing problems in maltreated toddlers? Child Maltreatment, 21(1), 175-185.
Oxford, M. L., Marcenko, M., Fleming, C. B., Lohr, M. J., & Spieker, S. J. (2016). Promoting birth parents’ relationships with their toddlers upon reunification: Results from Promoting First Relationships® home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review, 61, 109-116.
Supporting Parents Program 2010-2015
Oxford, M. L., Spieker, S. J., Lohr, M. J., & Fleming, C. B. (2016). Promoting First Relationships® Randomized Trial of a 10-Week Home-Visiting Program With Families Referred to Child Protective Services. Child Maltreatment, 21(4), 267-277.
Pasalich, D.S., Fleming, C.B., Spieker, S.J., Lohr, M.J., & Oxford, M.L. (2018) Does parents’ own history of child abuse moderate the effectiveness of the Promoting First Relationships® intervention in Child Welfare? Child Maltreatment, doi: 10.1177/1077559518809217..
Hastings, P., Kahle-Kuipers, S., Fleming, C, Lohr, M.J., Katz, L & Oxford, M. (2018). An intervention that increases parental sensitivity in families referred to Child Protective Services also changes toddlers’ parasympathetic regulation. Developmental Science.
Oxford, M. L., Spieker, S. J., Lohr, M. J., Fleming, C. B., Dillon, C., & Rees, J. (2018). Ensuring Implementation Fidelity of a 10-Week Home Visiting Program in Two Randomized Clinical Trials. Maternal and child health journal, 22(3), 376-383.
Spieker, S. J., Oxford, M. L., Fleming, C. B., & Lohr, M. J. (2018). Parental childhood adversity, Depressive symptoms, and parenting quality: Effects on toddler self-regulation in child welfare services involved families. Infant mental health journal, 39(1), 5-16.
Hash, J. B., Oxford, M. L., Fleming, C. B., Ward, T. M., Spieker, S. J., & Lohr, M. J. (2019). Impact of a home visiting program on sleep problems among young children experiencing adversity. Child abuse & neglect, 89, 143-154.
Jones, E. J., Dawson, G., Kelly, J., Estes, A., & Webb, S. J. (2017). Parent‐delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention. Autism Research, 10(5), 961-972.
Booth-LaForce, C., Oxford, M., Barbosa-Leiker, C., Burduli, D., and Buchwald, D., (in press). Randomized Controlled Trial of the Promoting First Relationships® Preventive Intervention for Primary Caregivers and Toddlers in an American Indian Community. Prevention Science, 21(1), 98-108.